One of David Cage’s problems is that he is staunchly against making statements of any kind in his work, or examining his work for what statements he might be making. One of the most important things as a creator, beyond listening to other people and accepting criticism as previously suggested, is to be introspective about your work. To understand what statement you are making from the offset, if you are making one, and understand it as best you can. This helps you not only focus your project, but can help avoid common pitfalls.
As a writer, I also often think firstly “should I, personally be the one to tell this story?” It takes humility to understand that not every story is yours to tell. And once you decide that, you should always ask the question, as you are making your story “what does this say?” What implications are you making when X happens, etc. What does it say when a black character is illiterate in this setting, what does it say when a woman’s anger is punished or dismissed, what does it say when state violence is depicted as just?
So I guess my advice is to a) plan what you’re doing (generally) and understand it from the offset and b) step back from your work every once in a while and consider it in a broader outside context. It’s easy to fall into the trap of thinking your story is special somehow, that it doesn’t perpetuate harmful tropes or stereotypes because x,y and z reason, and really, you had a very good reason for doing what you did at the time. (It’s natural to do that! It’s your work! Of course you can’t be totally objective about it.) But when it all shakes out, a bad story beat or problematic mechanic will still be seen as they are.
(Ground rules also help me when I write to make sure I’m not always checking over my shoulder every sentence: Like I won’t depict slavery, or I won’t kill my LGBT cast, etc. It’s not a perfect system and sometimes a story beat might demand a rule get broken, but I keep those rules in mind when planning, just to make sure that every action I take involving real groups of people is given extra thought.)