Hi long time Warframe veteran, Glad to see the hype going around Waypoint and this thread. First thing first:
Anime (Dunno what system your playing on so forgive me)
In your ship next to your arsenal there should be a incubator where your kubrow would be laying. If its not there then two thing may have happen.
A: You fell off the game to do other things (Live life, play other stuff, etc) which your kubrow was neglected and died a long time ago which you should have a dna stabilizer to keep it alive. (Sorry for your lost )
B: you sent your Kubrow in stasis which cryogenically preserved your dog and at any time you can resurrect it.
The Star chart. If your on a planet let say earth and you want to travel to other planets, you have to unlock the junction heading to the different planet.
In order to unlock the junction you have to fulfill its requirement such as complete a quest, kill 200 enemies, complete a spy mission, etc.
Once you complete the list you go to the junction and face an AI warframe and kill it (Dont worry too much just bring your best equipment and murder it)
Basically getting to a different planet is structured like a mario game. Just complete node to node until you reach the junction and complete its requirment
In order to check how many slots are available just go to menu<Equipment <Inventory. There you will see how many slots is available for your warframe, weapons, pets, and sentinels. Plus other stuff too.
There may be a lot of things to do such as grinding and unlocking stuff but don’t let it overwhelm you. The main priority is to have fun and progress through quest.
The main quest you should be focusing on are:
The Archwing: Unlock the archwing and become a true space ninja
Natah : Head to uranus select any mission (peferably capture) and scan for blue ghost using a codex scanner. this will unlock upcoming missions that will be essential to warframe
The Second Dream : Heavy story lore and unlocks new mechanics
The War Within : More Lore and new mechanic
Also if you have mercury unlocked try getting to a relay ( its a social hub containing missions shops and mastery rank training which helps you hone your skills and learn the mechanics of warframe.)
Trading is not really my forte. Im more of a consumer then a entrepreneur. Best way to make plat for me is either have the newer prime parts you farmed from relics or be part of a syndicate and trade weapons and mods for it (You could be in 4 out of six syndicates if you manage properly)
My advice for anyone new is to play with a group or join a clan. The warframe community is very friendly enough that you could ask around in the recruit chat ingame and ask be be taxi to missions around the solar system.
If there is any veterans Interested in making a Waypoint clan you could feel free to ask me or the Giantbomb Warframe clan for help and we could try to assist you in making a dojo and bring the Waypoint community interested in playing warframe to play together and understand warframe. Plus be part of our alliance too
For a lengthy faq you could check out this site my clan wrote: https://www.giantbomb.com/warframe/3030-38788/forums/lengthy-faq-now-even-longer-updated-to-1814-1762332/#21
And our Update to keep tabs on whats going on: https://www.giantbomb.com/warframe/3030-38788/forums/pc-giant-bomb-alliance-update-june-28-2017-update--1760576/#726