Its been a while since I was starting, they changed the star chart and a bunch more changes happened but one of the main things you should be aware of is how to use and level up mods (fusing them with endo) - your weapons and warframes will reach the highest level (20) fairly quickly, so you will need to see what types of builds you like to use and if you want to upgrade some mods a lot or a bunch of mods a bit. Upgrading mods is the real “progression” early on because you will feel much more powerful with near-maxed damage mods for example.
The one general bit of advice I would give you is to set yourself quick and medium-term achievable goals in the game. There is a lot of farming and a lot of resources, and it can be very overwhelming. You can focus on opening up all the planets or on getting to a particular warframe (Rhino and Valkyr are really good early on for example) or weapon (you can buy weapon blueprints for credits which you will get a lot of through normal play, but then various weapons will require specific resources that you will have to farm, so pick those that are within reach), with clear goals the grind will be much easier.
Warframe Wiki, where you can get all the drop locations and basic explanations of systems, and youtube are your friends. Keep in mind also that you want to find the most recent videos because there have been so many changes in the game that a year old video can be utterly irrelevant. If you hear Fusion Cores or Void Keys then you’re digging too deep My favourite warframe youtubers are Tactical Potato, Mogamu and Rob from A Gay Guy Plays but there are A LOT of them so just find the ones whose jib cuts you like