I think it’s worth talking to him out of a session setting to ask him why he’s playing like that, and asking him if he’d be willing to tone it back for the rest of the group’s enjoyment (since really, I imagine all of you are hanging out together to have fun).
Having everyone on-board is the best way forward for the group dynamic, I think, rather than punishing the Thief with harsh in-world consequences for a flubbed greedy roll that derails the whole party’s progress and/or seeds rancor between players against the Thief, or you and that particular player. Which is not to say you can’t kick back occasionally–if he’s trying to burn npc goodwill and risking mechanical failure that often, if falls upon you as the DM to incur a proportional response. NPCs can remember his poor behavior and use it against him as a soft or hard move going forward, to boot.
Another opportunity is present few opportunities for thievery. Lead the party away from cities on a long quest into wilderness, perhaps, and/or an extended dungeon crawl, or a continent-spanning chase where time is of the essence. Tie up your party with higher priority threats and present fewer stealable options. Fight uncaring automata who carry nothing of value on them. Introduce them to a society that has transcended the need for worldly possessions, whether through worldview or magical ability to create a post-scarcity whatever they need–or who subsist on temporary, impermanent or otherwise transitory magical creations.
Or, if the Thief isn’t playing along after you ask them nicely, have them steal a cursed item they can’t get rid of/that causes mechanical disadvantage/that clutters their inventory with extra weight. This is the asshole move, but damn does it sound like it would be satisfying.
The soft “don’t give opportunities to steal” and hard “be a hardline consequence-pushing asshole GM” are coping mechanisms that don’t address the underlying issue, though, honestly. Open communication with the player, whether behind the scenes or with the entire group (say, if everyone feels that this is an issue) is the most likely way to deal with the root underlying issue of “hey man, this is making the game quite a bit less fun for the rest of us.”
If you present your concerns and he blows them off like “hey, I’m just gonna play my character like I want to!” you’ve, uh, learned that he’s not so much roleplaying his selfish and inconsiderate character as living out a power fantasy he wishes he could do in real life. Which is a bit harsh of a condemnation of his character, perhaps, but… why even play a group game that requires so much personal, emotional and time investment from every member without considering the group experience, my dude?